Adaptation: It involves adjusting to live with a natural hazard.
Adaptation to climate changing: It involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate. The goal is to reduce our vulnerability to the harmful effects of climate change (like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity). It also encompasses making the most of any potential beneficial opportunities associated with climate change (for example, longer growing seasons or increased yields in some regions).
Climate Change: A long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth's local, regional and global climates. The Earth’s climate changes in response to natural astronomic causes that throughout history have led to glaciation and warm climate. Changes observed in Earth’s climate since the early 20th century are primarily driven by human activities, particularly fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere, raising Earth’s average surface temperature.
Coastal Plains: Flat, low-lying land close to the sea adjacent to the sea coast. They are highly vulnerable to Sea Level Rise.
Coastal zone: The interface between the land and the sea.
River Delta: It is a flat shaped triangular zone, where a river slowly outflows in the sea spreading into several branches. Its landform is created by the deposition of sediments transported that is carried by a river along its course when the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Disaster impacts. The physical and social disturbances that a hazard agent inflicts when it strikes a community. Physical impacts comprise casualties (deaths, injuries, and illnesses) and damage to agriculture, structures, infrastructure, and the natural environment.
Exposure: The situation of people, infrastructure, housing, production capacities and other tangible human assets located in hazard-prone areas.
Exposed value: It is a measure of the exposure. It can include the number of people or types of assets in an area combined with the specific vulnerability and capacity of the exposed elements to any particular hazard. The value is used to estimate the quantitative risks associated with that hazard in the area of interest.
Flood hazard: The inundation of land by river or sea overflow that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. In coastal areas flood hazard is related to heavy rain and the rise of sea level
Flood Risk: The possibility of loss or injury in response to floods. Risk is the product between the flood hazard, the land’s or assets’ vulnerability and the exposed value at stake.
Hazard: A process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards may be natural, anthropogenic, socionatural or any combination of them in origin. Hazards may be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects.
Global Warming: The long-term heating of Earth’s climate system observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900) due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere. The term is frequently used interchangeably with the term climate change, though the latter refers to both human- and naturally produced warming and the effects it has on our planet. It is most commonly measured as the average increase in Earth’s global surface temperature.
Greenhouse effect: The heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere. Greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that causes average temperature on the Earth’s surface to be 15 °C and favours life. Without greenhouse effects average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C
However, today's excess greenhouse effect causes average global temperatures to increase as much that causes ice loss at Earth’s poles and in mountain glaciers, changes in extreme weather, wildfires, droughts, floods and precipitation, to name but a few.
Greenhouse gases They are gases in Earth's atmosphere that trap heat. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3).
ICCP: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.
Lagoon: Area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes
Land Subsidence: The sinking of the ground's surface with little or no horizontal motion. It may be caused by natural processes or by human activities. The former include various karst phenomena, thawing of permafrost, consolidation, oxidation of organic soils, slow crustal warping (isostatic adjustment), tectonics, normal faulting, caldera subsidence or withdrawal of fluid lava from beneath a solid crust. The human activities include sub-surface mining or extraction of underground fluids, e. g. petroleum, natural gas or groundwater.
Land subsidence locally increases the rise of sea level.
Maladaptation: Actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate-related outcomes or increased vulnerability to climate change.
Mitigation: Actions devoted to reducing the impact of hazards.
Mitigation of climate change: Actions involve reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The goal of mitigation is to stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner (from the 2014 report on Mitigation of Climate Change from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, page 4). These actions can either reduce sources of these gases or enhance the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil).
Nature-based solutions: Refers to an umbrella concept for various ecosystem-related approaches. It covers actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural or modified ecosystems. Nature-based solutions aim to achieve resilience in ways that enhance the resilience of ecosystems, their capacity for renewal and the provision of services.
Preparedness: The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent or current disasters.
Prevention: Activities and measures to reduce vulnerability and exposure to mitigate disaster risks.
Reclamation area: Land that has been made suitable for building or farming. These areas, being low-lying, are naturally vulnerable to floods. When they are located along the coast they can be flooded by river overflow and by the incoming sea.
Resilience: The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, while positively adapting and transforming their structures and means for living in the face of long-term stresses, change and uncertainty.
Risk: The possibility of a hazard to cause loss or injury. Risk is computed by the probability of occurrence of hazardous events multiplied by the vulnerability to them and by the exposed value at stake.
Sea Level Changes (SLC): they are caused by long term changes of mass and density of the oceans in consequence of astronomical, climatic and tectonic effects (e.g. variation in Earth’s orbits and axis inclination, plate tectonics, thermal expansion of the ocean, melting glaciers and polar ice caps, and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica ice sheets).
Sea Level Rise (SLR): It is caused by global warming (e.g. through thermal expansion of the ocean, melting glaciers and polar ice caps, and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica ice sheets). The temporal average for a given location is mean sea level while the spatial average is global mean sea level.
Relative Sea Level Rise (RSLR): Changes in local sea level caused by local natural and/or anthropogenic factors (e.g. tectonics, volcanism, soil compaction, fluid withdrawal, etc.) that may cause significant increase with respect to global mean sea level.
Vulnerability: The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of an individual, a community, assets or systems to the impacts of hazards.